Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges

Tanzania covers 945, 000 square kms, including approximately 60, 000 rectangular kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2 . 8 percent per year. Females consist of 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, as the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 yrs and the mortality rate is 8. 8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania’s exports. Tourism adds 15. 8%; and manufacturing, 8.
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1% and mining, 1 . 7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3+ including pre-primary, primary school, ordinary degree secondary education, Advanced level extra, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby mom and dad are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium associated with instruction in primary is Kiswahili.

One of the key objectives of the very first president J. K. Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which usually to be ensuring that basic social solutions were available equitably to all users of society. In the education industry, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Motion, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, plus provided free of cost to users to make sure it reached the poorest. Since the strategy was implemented, large-scale boosts in the numbers of primary schools plus teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment arrived at nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. Through 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.

2 . Globalization
To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across nations and societies in different parts of the world. The normal phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global social networking (e. g. internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer plus interflow in technological, economic, public, political, cultural, and learning locations, international alliances and competitions, worldwide collaboration and exchange, global community, multi-cultural integration, and use of worldwide standards and benchmarks. See furthermore Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).

3. Globalization in Education
In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Master (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, schooling, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to reply to this new order. Since this particular responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure the implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley and Watson, 2004).

There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on schooling because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national condition. But , it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, additionally, there are powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, other people affect the nature of educational administration. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is among the global trends in the world which allow to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. Additionally they argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have energy of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly connected in the international institutions that send out particular strategies for educational change. Such as western governments, multilateral and zwei staaten betreffend development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these types of agencies are the ones which create global policies and transfer all of them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education and learning reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.

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